Motown Spotlight - June 2018

Motown Spotlight – June 2018

She never sang a note or wrote a lyric, but she was as essential to Motown as any of the label’s artists and producers. Who am I talking about?  Yup, you guessed it – Mrs. Maxine Powell.

“She was such an important, integral part of what we were doing at Motown” said Smokey Robinson in 2013.  “It didn’t matter who you became during the course of your career, how many hits you had, or how well your name was known around the world, two days a week when you were back in Detroit, you had to go to Artists Development. You went there and learned so many things about being in show business.”

So let’s briefly reflect on Mrs. Powell’s early life and how she hooked up with Motown.  Born on 30 May 1915, Maxine Blair was raised by an aunt in Chicago. As a teenager she started acting, eventually appearing with the Negro Drama League, a black repertory company there. From this, she worked as a model, before training as a cosmetologist and manicurist at Madam C.J. Walker’s School of Beauty Culture.  During 1958, the 43-year-old black American etiquette coach moved to Detroit to open her own Finishing and Modelling School in Detroit for African-Americans and, as a talent scout, instigated black productions in theatres, and placed black models in advertising campaigns. To this end, she had three female models, two male and two children on her books, with major clients of Packard, Dodge and Chrysler.  She hosted an annual show, and one particular year wanted to produce a souvenir programme to celebrate the occasion. The Gordy Printing Company, run by Mrs. Esther Gordy and her brother Fuller, was recommended as being the best in Detroit. This marked Mrs. Powell’s first introduction to the family.  Esther’s husband, George Edwards, was a state representative, and intended to run for a seat on Detroit’s City Council.  As Mrs. Powell had an empty office in her property, The Ferry Centre, comprising a large ballroom, private party room, bar, banquet kitchen and five offices, she offered it to George Edwards. Esther became her husband’s campaign manager and, as the Gordy family was notoriously close knit, members often popped by to help him out. Through these visits it became clear that Mrs. Bertha Gordy Snr. was interested in personal development, later signing up for one of Mrs. Powell’s courses:  likewise Loucye and Esther.  Gwen Gordy went on to become one of her models. This was, of course, pre-Motown, where friendships were cemented and working relationships developed.

Prior to Mrs. Powell joining Motown, she was introduced to fledgling artists because they were showcased in her downstairs ballroom.  Indeed, when Berry Gordy penned “Lonely Teardrops” for Jackie Wilson, she was asked to watch his performance then asked to critique it. From here, Berry Gordy asked her to open the ‘Motown Finishing School.’   Once he began signing artists to his new record label, he encouraged them to attend Mrs. Powell’s classes, but it wasn’t obligatory.   “When I met the artists, they were young. They came from humble beginnings and not all, but some of them, were rude and crude, and from the streets and the Projects” she once said. “It’s not where they came from, but where they were heading.  (They’re) gonna learn how to perform, gonna graduate and become great performers.” She called them ‘diamonds in the rough’.  Personal grooming included artists being taught how to walk, the proper way to smoke a cigarette, the graceful way to walk up and down stairs, to jump on a piano, and the correct way to enter and alight from a vehicle without showing a bare leg or underwear. She was quick to point out that she had nothing to do with voice – “I teach them to smile and be beautiful, because every time you smile, every muscle in your body is relaxed for that split second.  And some of them turned out to be rubies and emeralds.”

Each act was also trained to perform an original stage show, with dances and dialogue worked out for them. Even the adlibbing was rehearsed.  Their choreography was painstakingly thought out, right down to holding the microphone, and the many ways of using it effectively.  “Nobody was forced to do anything” Mrs. Powell told the Respect programme.  “I was there only to enrich their life and help them skip to the bank…if they weren’t interested in that, then that was OK.” However, those artists who recognised the value in her classes were told to listen and follow the positive guidelines she offered, saying – “…You’re getting a basic finishing background to do anything you want to do in life…..When I told them you’re going to travel to appear in number one places around the country, and even before the King and Queen, they didn’t believe it.  All they wanted was a hit record. ”

The School was the only one of its kind offered at any record company, and Berry Gordy often joked that he still remembers Mrs. Powell’s aphorisms like – “Do not confuse me with your parents.  They’re stuck with you, I’m not” and “Do not protrude your buttocks.”

However, Marvin Gaye was one artist who believed he didn’t need any training in what he called ‘the charm school’. Mrs. Powell agreed that he may not need her help as much as others, but his biggest failing was singing with his eyes closed, giving the appearance he was singing in his sleep.  She told him – “You can close your eyes for a certain gesture but your eyes are the mirrors of your soul….so we (had) to work on that.”  She also suggested he could improve his walk because he led with his shoulders and head.  His ears should be straight with his shoulders, she told him.  So they worked together until she was satisfied.

She also recalled Diana Ross being a dedicated hard worker, claiming, no other artist matched the hours she put in.  However, when The Supremes sang “Baby Love”, Mrs. Powell told them they were making faces, while Diana opened her mouth so wide it appeared she was about to swallow the microphone.  “We worked on expressing….looking pleasant and with a smile and maybe a gesture.  How to handle the mic (ensuring) the mic didn’t handle you…..All a singer needs is voice and expression.  Anything else you have is an asset to your profession.”  She also encouraged Diana not to look or lean forward, rather push her hip bones forward – “like pushing them up under your chin.”  This created the correct posture. Next on the agenda was how to walk – one foot in front of the other, and further, she said – “The torso of the body should never move.  All you need to walk is to lift your feet and let the action carry the body.”  In later years Diana Ross acknowledged – “Mrs. Powell was the person who taught me everything I know.”

The Temptations’ debut at New York’s Copacabana proved to be a logistical problem for the group until Mrs. Powell came up with the solution.  As there was no stage and restricted space for them to perform in the way that they usually did at other venues, like the Fox Theatre for example, she suggested – “I want all five of you to stand and touch fingers. Stretch your arms out and touch your fingers together, that’s all the space you need to perform. If you cover every inch of where your fingers are, you’ve done (it)”.

Mrs. Powell said Martha Reeves was adorable to work it.  She didn’t only concentrate on herself but also her Vandellas, always teaching them what she had learned.  “(Martha) wasn’t into the real glamour clothes….(but) they always looked nice. “  Mrs. Powell remembered that when the trio was part of the Motown Revue, Martha wasn’t as secure as she wanted to be and often did not feel good about herself.  “So it would take her, maybe, until twelve o’clock to …get herself together where she could feel relaxed and talk to people.”  The two worked together and in time Martha overcame her fears.  Years later in an interview with The Observer newspaper, Martha acknowledged her gratitude: “Everything I do and every move I make has to do with her teachings…She also taught us how to dance with our feet. Today, a lot of women in this business dance with their bodies.  The camera strikes them at the pelvis first, then goes to their faces.  Mrs. Powell showed us how to use our feet, which moved our bodies with elegance.  What she taught me was class and self-worth.”

In another interview with The Guardian during 2013, Martha remembered that as black artists they had to overcome all aspects of racial discrimination, including being denied the use of a toilet or not being allowed to eat in restaurants. “She taught us how to tolerate, to sustain and to persevere.  And she was right.  I survived.”  When Mrs. Powell was in her nineties, they hung out as friends with Martha, once elected to Detroit’s City Council, hiring her to assist her at council functions and charity events. –“(Mrs.. Powell) knew a lot about politics and Detroit. How it ran. She was very aware of everything, a font of information, and a well respected figure in the city.”  Mrs.. Powell also helped Martha write speeches, make connections, while becoming her confidante.  She also refused to tell her real age, at ninety-two, because “people think you’re useless”. All told, Martha continued, Mrs.. Powell served four years doing community liaison by visiting retirement homes, encouraging old folks to get up and dance, and to schools where the young people might have disapproved of two elderly ladies telling them what to do.  “But, she’d have them up and walking, showing them how to be proud and walk without a swag.”

The Miracles’ Bobby Rogers warmly remembered Mrs. Powell as a stickler for positive behaviour – “She deserves all the credit and admiration she gets.  What a wonderful addition to Motown she’s been.”  The Four Tops’ Duke Fakir said, “She taught us all etiquette, class and what you are supposed to do.  That’s artist development.”  And, Berry Gordy told her, “You have style.”

Mrs. Powell insisted she was overwhelmingly proud of all the performers she worked with, telling journalist Jeff Karbour that “This has been a blessing.  I thank God for allowing me to be here….I’m very proud of them because you don’t hear a lot of negative things about Motown artists.”

Mrs. Maxine Powell always radiated a natural dignity and grace, delicately mannered and primly dressed from her shoes to her obligatory hat.  And this is how we remembered her up to her death in October 2013 in Southfield’s Providence Hospital.  Her actual cause of death was said to have been associated with her declining health following a fall on 31 May.  Her passing was peaceful, surrounded by close friends and her Motown family.

Berry Gordy – “The Motown legacy would not be what it is today if not for her.”

Motown Spotlight - January 2018

Motown Spotlight – January 2018

As I mentioned “Ain’t No Mountain High Enough” in the last couple of months, it got me thinking about Marvin Gaye and Tammi Terrell again. So I dug out my vinyl copy of the emotionally charged “You’re All I Need” to play in the background as I put those thoughts into notes, and which led me to this….

With Marvin’s duet success with Mary Wells and Kim Weston still ringing in his ears, Berry Gordy needed to find another singing partner for him. A move Marvin would later claim to be “another money making scheme on BG’s part.” Nonetheless, when new Motown signing Tammi Terrell was introduced to Marvin, he liked her on sight. “It was a pleasure for me” Marvin said at the time. “I wanted to work with (her)…she was pretty, nice. She was soft, warm and sweet, yet misunderstood. Yes, I enjoyed working with her.“ From that first meeting, he realised Tammi was a worldly woman who had lived life in the fast lane, yet once they started singing together, she changed “into a warm, special and hopeful woman.” This musical combination resulted in top selling singles that delighted lovers the world over. It seems so ironic that while they epitomised the perfect couple, each had suffered from abusive partners, either physically or mentally. Marvin’s marriage to Anna Gordy had soured, and Tammi had escaped from a series of unsuitable relationships. Yet from the ashes that were left, the perfect musical partnership rose, inspired by another duo, writers Valerie Simpson and Nickolas Ashford, who wrote of the real love Marvin felt was missing in his failed marriage. The fact that the lyrics they sang were an extension of the writers’ love for each other, or an imaginative play on words, didn’t cross the singer’s mind.

Tammi’s sister, Ludie Montgomery believed that teaming up with Marvin was a liberating move for her. Tammi, she said, felt creative and free, enabling her to forge an emotional connection with Marvin, Valerie and Nickolas. Her relationship with producers Harvey Fuqua and Johnny Bristol was by now solid anyway, so the future promised fulfilment and success for the young, shy singer and the angry, hurt sex idol. With everything in place, the musical adventure began in January 1967 when Tammi recorded her vocals for the song (Marvin recorded his a month later) that was earmarked to launch them into the extremely lucrative duet market. Aptly titled “Ain’t No Mountain High Enough”, it was the perfect signature tune for their future career together. Berry Gordy noted in his autobiography “To Be Loved” that Harvey Fuqua and Johnny Bristol’s production – “added a new sophisticated and dramatic element to the overall sound. When their first production on Marvin and Tammi was brought into the Friday meeting, there was no debate.” In June 1967 the single shot into the US mainstream top twenty, and top three in the R&B listing. Shamefully, the UK didn’t share their American colleagues’ enthusiasm. Not only did it burn up the US charts, but the song was also nominated for a Grammy award, and, of course, went on to be re-recorded several times, including the magnificent, re-working by Diana Ross which ingenuously mixed ballad, drama and dance.

As noted previously, “Ain’t No Mountain High Enough” wasn’t born as a song for two, but working with Marvin and Tammi, its composers realised it could easily be adapted. As with several of their duets, Tammi laid down her vocals first, although in this instance, it was done because she hadn’t learned the lyrics. However, when Marvin heard the pre-recorded track, he said he could feel her presence which, in turn, made him more alive, and as Johnny Bristol told Ludie Montgomery for her book “My Sister Tommie”, it cemented the singers’ respect and love for each other – “Friendship transcended the presence and they both didn’t have to be there to capture the feeling.” Johnny also felt the song established a spiritual connection for everyone associated with the song. and that when Marvin later joined them in the studio, “He had a fun time and everyone felt the same about the sessions. It was a great environment working with Tammi and Marvin. They did what they did naturally.” All worked comfortably together, tagging themselves the ‘riff brothers’, with Tammi the ‘riff sister’. “They had a magical …. connection, and when they sang they sounded like they (had known) each other their entire lives.”

Marvin told author David Ritz in his book “Divided Soul” that Tammi was a woman who could not be controlled by men. “I loved that about (her). I knew we could be friends, but not lovers. Independent women hold no romantic interest for me.” He conceded though that when they were singing together, they were in love, but this was the result of him creating two characters – “two lovers that might have been taken from a play or a novel…. that’s how the Marvin-and-Tammi characters were born.”

With the runaway success of “Ain’t No Mountain High Enough” came distress. Six months after its release, in October 1967, Tammi collapsed on stage during a performance before four thousand students, at Virginia’s Hampton-Sydney College. Part way through their third song, as she fell, Marvin grabbed her by the arms, and carried her off stage. Having suffered from dizziness and migraine headaches for some time, Tammi had been feeling ill before the 8pm concert, so took time out to recuperate on a couch backstage, while Marvin played poker with his musicians in a nearby room. Rumours ran amok as to the reason for her collapse. Past boyfriends, including David Ruffin, were blamed due to their violent behaviour towards her, and indeed, it is in the public domain that she was hit about the head with a hammer and, on another occasion, pushed down a flight of stairs. However, at the time, the guessing game was in first gear. Motown eventually released a press statement confirming that a slow growing malignant tumour on the right side of Tammi’s brain had been diagnosed. When Marvin realised just how sick his singing partner was, he was inconsolable, a feeling that, by the way, never left him. Thankfully, Tammi slowly recovered from surgery to continue recording, where the first sessions included “You’re All I Need To Get By”.

Meanwhile, the British market also failed to support the duo’s second release “Your Precious Love”, reminiscent of the floating Moonglows’ style, and again lifted from their debut “United” album. It sold better than its predecessor by soaring into the US top five, and narrowly missing the R&B top spot, during the September. A Valerie Simpson favourite, because it was one of the first written with the duettists in mind, and, “there was something very sexy about the way they did it.” Featuring Harvey Fuqua, Marvin and Tammi on backing vocals, Valerie acknowledged to Ludie Montgomery, Tammi’s additional input, including the ad-libs – “that’s why it was so great to have them both in the studio together because they would bounce off each other. “ During the life of “Your Precious Love”, Tammi was pictured on crutches, sneaking into The Cherry Hill Theatre/Restaurant in Camden, New Jersey, to watch Marvin perform. It was an emotional scene to witness.

With no UK action so far, sighs of relief must have been heard in Motown’s London office, when the third outing “If I Could Build My Whole World Around You”, recorded in the Hitsville studio between 16 and 21 March 1967, crept into the British top fifty during January 1968, launching their musical love affair. Once again the single hovered below the US R&B top spot but peaked in the top ten.

Marvin and Tammi’s first single of 1968, “Ain’t Nothing Like The Real Thing”, lifted from their second album “You’re All I Need”, faired better than their previous British release by peaking in the top forty, while across the Atlantic, it managed to top the R&B chart and was their second pop top ten hit. Marvin recalled recording that particular song because they were trying different kinds of riffs and note changes to challenge each other, “and that’s how that song is as melodic and syncopated in the way that it is…. We really had fun recording that.” And the album itself re-established their vinyl love affair – they cried, rejoiced, teased, pledging unremitting emotions. It was their first hour, but recorded under the direst of circumstances due to Tammi’s failing health, as noted in the album’s sleeve notes. It seems that when “You’re All I Need” was issued, Tammi, had undergone at least six operations, and was in hospital, later recuperating in the Bahamas. “I’m feeling fine” she said in an interview at the time. Learning to knit while in hospital made her feel like a grandma, she continued, and upon returning home she started cooking and eating soul food. “I went down to ninety-three pounds in the hospital and now I weigh one hundred and twenty-five.” Her hair, shorn for surgery, was almost natural now. “But, for a while there, my father said I looked just like him.” It was also reported that she was partially sighted and had lost some of her motor functions, hence the crutches or wheelchair. However, it’s thought that Tammi’s sheer determination to return to work pulled her through, and her nagging depressive moods at missing performing with Marvin just as their star was rising, began lifting. However, despite all her best intentions, doctors insisted she stick to a limited work schedule, had daily concentrated rest periods, with live performances a no-go area. It was also disclosed that Motown paid her medical bills.

It was a tragedy. Tammi Terrell was, at last, in a position to shrug off her past struggling years, but was now unable to enjoy them. Promotional work was also difficult. With their chart success, it was obvious the public wanted to see them, and tour promoters, television shows and the media in general, flooded to feature them. Some commitments were jointly honoured, but when Tammi was unable to join him, it was a reluctant Marvin who went it alone without being able to divulge the true nature of his partner’s absence. In the end, Motown singer Barbara Randolph replaced Tammi on stage, a move she wasn’t comfortable with, as she told me. “It was very difficult working with him because these were his troubled years. For example, I was booked to appear at the Apollo with him, and it was one of the many occasions he didn’t show up. I ended up appearing there alone which was really frightening. It was scary (because) they throw hard boiled eggs. And the audience was waiting for Marvin.” Nevertheless, Barbara had nothing but admiration for him, saying she never heard him raise his voice in anger, or get into any type of loud situation. “He was extremely likeable, easy going, and a very mellow person…I admired him before I ever worked with him.” Meanwhile, Tammi concentrated on recording and, apparently, was often seen in the studio singing from a wheelchair or balanced between crutches.

“You’re All I Need To Get By”, with Ashford and Simpson on backing vocals, finally crashed the UK top twenty in October 1968, and once again Marvin and Tammi dominated the US R&B listing, this time, for five consecutive weeks, and racked up another top ten mainstream hit.

Into 1969, and with The Andantes and The Originals as session singers, another track from the “You’re All I Need” album, “You Ain’t Livin’ ‘Till Your Lovin’” hit the UK top thirty in the June, while the States opted for “Keep On Lovin’ Me Honey”; top thirty and twenty in the US pop and R&B charts respectively. Marvin’s solo status was about to drastically change when, slotted in between the run of duets, his “I Heard It Through The Grapevine” shot to the top of the UK chart, with repeat performances across the world. The game plan was changing, Marvin was now an international name and, of course, much in demand. The single’s runaway success had taken Marvin and Motown by surprise. Having been recorded early-1967, Marvin’s was the second version to be released (the first by Gladys Knight and the Pips, although the very first take was an album track by The Miracles on their 1968 “Special Occasion”). Marvin’s moody interpretation, a stroke of genius by producer Norman Whitfield, was hidden away on his “In The Groove” album. However, it didn’t stay concealed for long because it grabbed the attention of some American radio DJs who gave it serious airtime, leaving Berry Gordy no option but to release it as a single. Prior to this international chart topper, Marvin had several solo outings to his credit, including “You’re Unchanging Love”, “You” and “Chained”, while in January 1969, Tammi released her only solo album “Irresistible”, from which a series of singles were extracted.

However, both artists were committed to further duets, and were in the process of completing a third album “Easy”, when one of its tracks, the musical jewel “Good Lovin’ Ain’t Easy To Come By” was lifted during June 1969. Hitting the top thirty on both sides of the Atlantic, plus a top twenty placing in the R&B listing, the public was unaware of the turmoil created behind closed studio doors due to an ailing Tammi. Next out in America was another track “What You Gave Me”, while Motown in Britain chose “The Onion Song” for November 1969 release. Despite its cheesy title, the song actually reflected social consciousness although did appear to be a little slice of nonsense upon first hearing. In hindsight, the song was probably more suited to the British market, but following its unexpected top ten success, America released it during March 1970, to falter in the top fifty, and the R&B top forty.

Over the years, much as been said about their last studio album “Easy” with a somewhat shoddy, unattractive painting by Carl Owens on the front sleeve. Fans had no reason to believe that the music inside wasn’t an authentic Marvin and Tammi release. However, when it was leaked from Motown that Tammi was unable to record, doubts were cast. It’s now on public record that Marvin actually did not want to work on this album because his singing partner was too ill, and that the suggestion of a replacement singer would not only deceive the public, but destroy the special, intimate relationship he shared with Tammi. However, he changed his mind when Berry Gordy confirmed that Tammi and her family would benefit from the album’s sales and any extracted singles. After much speculation, it’s now thought that the majority of the album tracks were authentic, and when two or three titles were needed to complete the project, Valerie Simpson stepped in. A move she has both confirmed and denied, by saying she helped Tammi sing her parts. In a later interview, Marvin revealed Tammi didn’t record much on the album at all, and confirmed Valerie had recorded “The Onion Song” and “What You Gave Me”. Saying she had faithfully captured Tammi’s voice, skilfully imitating her distinctive style and only someone who had worked so intimately with her could possibly have pulled this off. And also as Valerie had probably recorded several of their demos, she was the obvious ‘culprit’. In hindsight, this is irrelevant. It isn’t the first time Motown’s marketing department has stretched the truth. Didn’t The Andantes record with Diana Ross, yet records were released showing “Diana Ross and the Supremes” on the labels? We were none the wiser back then. It’s only in recent times with the growing demand for unreleased material that studio paperwork revealed we had been misled. Having said that, with the “Easy” front sleeve being a painting, fans, like myself, did question Tammi’s involvement in the recordings, although eventually accepted, having seen pictures of the ailing singer in the American press, that a new photo shoot for the project was out of the question. This didn’t affect our enjoyment of the album, despite it being a mixture of sounds. But our hearts went out to Miss Terrell.

While the UK was celebrating Motown’s 10th anniversary in 1970 – and after two and a half years of fighting her illness which entailed several hospital stays, where Marvin was a regular visitor – Tammi Terrell slipped into a coma and died from brain cancer complications on 16 March, a month before her twenty-fifth birthday. Fourteen years later, Marvin Gaye was shot dead by his father on 1 April, a day short of his forty-fifth birthday.

Valerie Simpson: “The chemistry between them was fantastic and while they never had a romance in real life, when they sang together ‘wow’, they were lovers.”

As I mentioned “Ain’t No Mountain High Enough” in the last couple of months, it got me thinking about Marvin Gaye and Tammi Terrell again. So I dug out my vinyl copy of the emotionally charged “You’re All I Need” to play in the background as I put those thoughts into notes, and which led me to this….

With Marvin’s duet success with Mary Wells and Kim Weston still ringing in his ears, Berry Gordy needed to find another singing partner for him. A move Marvin would later claim to be “another money making scheme on BG’s part.” Nonetheless, when new Motown signing Tammi Terrell was introduced to Marvin, he liked her on sight. “It was a pleasure for me” Marvin said at the time. “I wanted to work with (her)…she was pretty, nice. She was soft, warm and sweet, yet misunderstood. Yes, I enjoyed working with her.“ From that first meeting, he realised Tammi was a worldly woman who had lived life in the fast lane, yet once they started singing together, she changed “into a warm, special and hopeful woman.” This musical combination resulted in top selling singles that delighted lovers the world over. It seems so ironic that while they epitomised the perfect couple, each had suffered from abusive partners, either physically or mentally. Marvin’s marriage to Anna Gordy had soured, and Tammi had escaped from a series of unsuitable relationships. Yet from the ashes that were left, the perfect musical partnership rose, inspired by another duo, writers Valerie Simpson and Nickolas Ashford, who wrote of the real love Marvin felt was missing in his failed marriage. The fact that the lyrics they sang were an extension of the writers’ love for each other, or an imaginative play on words, didn’t cross the singer’s mind.

Tammi’s sister, Ludie Montgomery believed that teaming up with Marvin was a liberating move for her. Tammi, she said, felt creative and free, enabling her to forge an emotional connection with Marvin, Valerie and Nickolas. Her relationship with producers Harvey Fuqua and Johnny Bristol was by now solid anyway, so the future promised fulfilment and success for the young, shy singer and the angry, hurt sex idol. With everything in place, the musical adventure began in January 1967 when Tammi recorded her vocals for the song (Marvin recorded his a month later) that was earmarked to launch them into the extremely lucrative duet market. Aptly titled “Ain’t No Mountain High Enough”, it was the perfect signature tune for their future career together. Berry Gordy noted in his autobiography “To Be Loved” that Harvey Fuqua and Johnny Bristol’s production – “added a new sophisticated and dramatic element to the overall sound. When their first production on Marvin and Tammi was brought into the Friday meeting, there was no debate.” In June 1967 the single shot into the US mainstream top twenty, and top three in the R&B listing. Shamefully, the UK didn’t share their American colleagues’ enthusiasm. Not only did it burn up the US charts, but the song was also nominated for a Grammy award, and, of course, went on to be re-recorded several times, including the magnificent, re-working by Diana Ross which ingenuously mixed ballad, drama and dance.

As noted previously, “Ain’t No Mountain High Enough” wasn’t born as a song for two, but working with Marvin and Tammi, its composers realised it could easily be adapted. As with several of their duets, Tammi laid down her vocals first, although in this instance, it was done because she hadn’t learned the lyrics. However, when Marvin heard the pre-recorded track, he said he could feel her presence which, in turn, made him more alive, and as Johnny Bristol told Ludie Montgomery for her book “My Sister Tommie”, it cemented the singers’ respect and love for each other – “Friendship transcended the presence and they both didn’t have to be there to capture the feeling.” Johnny also felt the song established a spiritual connection for everyone associated with the song. and that when Marvin later joined them in the studio, “He had a fun time and everyone felt the same about the sessions. It was a great environment working with Tammi and Marvin. They did what they did naturally.” All worked comfortably together, tagging themselves the ‘riff brothers’, with Tammi the ‘riff sister’. “They had a magical …. connection, and when they sang they sounded like they (had known) each other their entire lives.”

Marvin told author David Ritz in his book “Divided Soul” that Tammi was a woman who could not be controlled by men. “I loved that about (her). I knew we could be friends, but not lovers. Independent women hold no romantic interest for me.” He conceded though that when they were singing together, they were in love, but this was the result of him creating two characters – “two lovers that might have been taken from a play or a novel…. that’s how the Marvin-and-Tammi characters were born.”

With the runaway success of “Ain’t No Mountain High Enough” came distress. Six months after its release, in October 1967, Tammi collapsed on stage during a performance before four thousand students, at Virginia’s Hampton-Sydney College. Part way through their third song, as she fell, Marvin grabbed her by the arms, and carried her off stage. Having suffered from dizziness and migraine headaches for some time, Tammi had been feeling ill before the 8pm concert, so took time out to recuperate on a couch backstage, while Marvin played poker with his musicians in a nearby room. Rumours ran amok as to the reason for her collapse. Past boyfriends, including David Ruffin, were blamed due to their violent behaviour towards her, and indeed, it is in the public domain that she was hit about the head with a hammer and, on another occasion, pushed down a flight of stairs. However, at the time, the guessing game was in first gear. Motown eventually released a press statement confirming that a slow growing malignant tumour on the right side of Tammi’s brain had been diagnosed. When Marvin realised just how sick his singing partner was, he was inconsolable, a feeling that, by the way, never left him. Thankfully, Tammi slowly recovered from surgery to continue recording, where the first sessions included “You’re All I Need To Get By”.

Meanwhile, the British market also failed to support the duo’s second release “Your Precious Love”, reminiscent of the floating Moonglows’ style, and again lifted from their debut “United” album. It sold better than its predecessor by soaring into the US top five, and narrowly missing the R&B top spot, during the September. A Valerie Simpson favourite, because it was one of the first written with the duettists in mind, and, “there was something very sexy about the way they did it.” Featuring Harvey Fuqua, Marvin and Tammi on backing vocals, Valerie acknowledged to Ludie Montgomery, Tammi’s additional input, including the ad-libs – “that’s why it was so great to have them both in the studio together because they would bounce off each other. “ During the life of “Your Precious Love”, Tammi was pictured on crutches, sneaking into The Cherry Hill Theatre/Restaurant in Camden, New Jersey, to watch Marvin perform. It was an emotional scene to witness.

With no UK action so far, sighs of relief must have been heard in Motown’s London office, when the third outing “If I Could Build My Whole World Around You”, recorded in the Hitsville studio between 16 and 21 March 1967, crept into the British top fifty during January 1968, launching their musical love affair. Once again the single hovered below the US R&B top spot but peaked in the top ten.

Marvin and Tammi’s first single of 1968, “Ain’t Nothing Like The Real Thing”, lifted from their second album “You’re All I Need”, faired better than their previous British release by peaking in the top forty, while across the Atlantic, it managed to top the R&B chart and was their second pop top ten hit. Marvin recalled recording that particular song because they were trying different kinds of riffs and note changes to challenge each other, “and that’s how that song is as melodic and syncopated in the way that it is…. We really had fun recording that.” And the album itself re-established their vinyl love affair – they cried, rejoiced, teased, pledging unremitting emotions. It was their first hour, but recorded under the direst of circumstances due to Tammi’s failing health, as noted in the album’s sleeve notes. It seems that when “You’re All I Need” was issued, Tammi, had undergone at least six operations, and was in hospital, later recuperating in the Bahamas. “I’m feeling fine” she said in an interview at the time. Learning to knit while in hospital made her feel like a grandma, she continued, and upon returning home she started cooking and eating soul food. “I went down to ninety-three pounds in the hospital and now I weigh one hundred and twenty-five.” Her hair, shorn for surgery, was almost natural now. “But, for a while there, my father said I looked just like him.” It was also reported that she was partially sighted and had lost some of her motor functions, hence the crutches or wheelchair. However, it’s thought that Tammi’s sheer determination to return to work pulled her through, and her nagging depressive moods at missing performing with Marvin just as their star was rising, began lifting. However, despite all her best intentions, doctors insisted she stick to a limited work schedule, had daily concentrated rest periods, with live performances a no-go area. It was also disclosed that Motown paid her medical bills.

It was a tragedy. Tammi Terrell was, at last, in a position to shrug off her past struggling years, but was now unable to enjoy them. Promotional work was also difficult. With their chart success, it was obvious the public wanted to see them, and tour promoters, television shows and the media in general, flooded to feature them. Some commitments were jointly honoured, but when Tammi was unable to join him, it was a reluctant Marvin who went it alone without being able to divulge the true nature of his partner’s absence. In the end, Motown singer Barbara Randolph replaced Tammi on stage, a move she wasn’t comfortable with, as she told me. “It was very difficult working with him because these were his troubled years. For example, I was booked to appear at the Apollo with him, and it was one of the many occasions he didn’t show up. I ended up appearing there alone which was really frightening. It was scary (because) they throw hard boiled eggs. And the audience was waiting for Marvin.” Nevertheless, Barbara had nothing but admiration for him, saying she never heard him raise his voice in anger, or get into any type of loud situation. “He was extremely likeable, easy going, and a very mellow person…I admired him before I ever worked with him.” Meanwhile, Tammi concentrated on recording and, apparently, was often seen in the studio singing from a wheelchair or balanced between crutches.

“You’re All I Need To Get By”, with Ashford and Simpson on backing vocals, finally crashed the UK top twenty in October 1968, and once again Marvin and Tammi dominated the US R&B listing, this time, for five consecutive weeks, and racked up another top ten mainstream hit.

Into 1969, and with The Andantes and The Originals as session singers, another track from the “You’re All I Need” album, “You Ain’t Livin’ ‘Till Your Lovin’” hit the UK top thirty in the June, while the States opted for “Keep On Lovin’ Me Honey”; top thirty and twenty in the US pop and R&B charts respectively. Marvin’s solo status was about to drastically change when, slotted in between the run of duets, his “I Heard It Through The Grapevine” shot to the top of the UK chart, with repeat performances across the world. The game plan was changing, Marvin was now an international name and, of course, much in demand. The single’s runaway success had taken Marvin and Motown by surprise. Having been recorded early-1967, Marvin’s was the second version to be released (the first by Gladys Knight and the Pips, although the very first take was an album track by The Miracles on their 1968 “Special Occasion”). Marvin’s moody interpretation, a stroke of genius by producer Norman Whitfield, was hidden away on his “In The Groove” album. However, it didn’t stay concealed for long because it grabbed the attention of some American radio DJs who gave it serious airtime, leaving Berry Gordy no option but to release it as a single. Prior to this international chart topper, Marvin had several solo outings to his credit, including “You’re Unchanging Love”, “You” and “Chained”, while in January 1969, Tammi released her only solo album “Irresistible”, from which a series of singles were extracted.

However, both artists were committed to further duets, and were in the process of completing a third album “Easy”, when one of its tracks, the musical jewel “Good Lovin’ Ain’t Easy To Come By” was lifted during June 1969. Hitting the top thirty on both sides of the Atlantic, plus a top twenty placing in the R&B listing, the public was unaware of the turmoil created behind closed studio doors due to an ailing Tammi. Next out in America was another track “What You Gave Me”, while Motown in Britain chose “The Onion Song” for November 1969 release. Despite its cheesy title, the song actually reflected social consciousness although did appear to be a little slice of nonsense upon first hearing. In hindsight, the song was probably more suited to the British market, but following its unexpected top ten success, America released it during March 1970, to falter in the top fifty, and the R&B top forty.

Over the years, much as been said about their last studio album “Easy” with a somewhat shoddy, unattractive painting by Carl Owens on the front sleeve. Fans had no reason to believe that the music inside wasn’t an authentic Marvin and Tammi release. However, when it was leaked from Motown that Tammi was unable to record, doubts were cast. It’s now on public record that Marvin actually did not want to work on this album because his singing partner was too ill, and that the suggestion of a replacement singer would not only deceive the public, but destroy the special, intimate relationship he shared with Tammi. However, he changed his mind when Berry Gordy confirmed that Tammi and her family would benefit from the album’s sales and any extracted singles. After much speculation, it’s now thought that the majority of the album tracks were authentic, and when two or three titles were needed to complete the project, Valerie Simpson stepped in. A move she has both confirmed and denied, by saying she helped Tammi sing her parts. In a later interview, Marvin revealed Tammi didn’t record much on the album at all, and confirmed Valerie had recorded “The Onion Song” and “What You Gave Me”. Saying she had faithfully captured Tammi’s voice, skilfully imitating her distinctive style and only someone who had worked so intimately with her could possibly have pulled this off. And also as Valerie had probably recorded several of their demos, she was the obvious ‘culprit’. In hindsight, this is irrelevant. It isn’t the first time Motown’s marketing department has stretched the truth. Didn’t The Andantes record with Diana Ross, yet records were released showing “Diana Ross and the Supremes” on the labels? We were none the wiser back then. It’s only in recent times with the growing demand for unreleased material that studio paperwork revealed we had been misled. Having said that, with the “Easy” front sleeve being a painting, fans, like myself, did question Tammi’s involvement in the recordings, although eventually accepted, having seen pictures of the ailing singer in the American press, that a new photo shoot for the project was out of the question. This didn’t affect our enjoyment of the album, despite it being a mixture of sounds. But our hearts went out to Miss Terrell.

While the UK was celebrating Motown’s 10th anniversary in 1970 – and after two and a half years of fighting her illness which entailed several hospital stays, where Marvin was a regular visitor – Tammi Terrell slipped into a coma and died from brain cancer complications on 16 March, a month before her twenty-fifth birthday. Fourteen years later, Marvin Gaye was shot dead by his father on 1 April, a day short of his forty-fifth birthday.

Valerie Simpson: “The chemistry between them was fantastic and while they never had a romance in real life, when they sang together ‘wow’, they were lovers.”

As I mentioned “Ain’t No Mountain High Enough” in the last couple of months, it got me thinking about Marvin Gaye and Tammi Terrell again. So I dug out my vinyl copy of the emotionally charged “You’re All I Need” to play in the background as I put those thoughts into notes, and which led me to this….

With Marvin’s duet success with Mary Wells and Kim Weston still ringing in his ears, Berry Gordy needed to find another singing partner for him. A move Marvin would later claim to be “another money making scheme on BG’s part.” Nonetheless, when new Motown signing Tammi Terrell was introduced to Marvin, he liked her on sight. “It was a pleasure for me” Marvin said at the time. “I wanted to work with (her)…she was pretty, nice. She was soft, warm and sweet, yet misunderstood. Yes, I enjoyed working with her.“ From that first meeting, he realised Tammi was a worldly woman who had lived life in the fast lane, yet once they started singing together, she changed “into a warm, special and hopeful woman.” This musical combination resulted in top selling singles that delighted lovers the world over. It seems so ironic that while they epitomised the perfect couple, each had suffered from abusive partners, either physically or mentally. Marvin’s marriage to Anna Gordy had soured, and Tammi had escaped from a series of unsuitable relationships. Yet from the ashes that were left, the perfect musical partnership rose, inspired by another duo, writers Valerie Simpson and Nickolas Ashford, who wrote of the real love Marvin felt was missing in his failed marriage. The fact that the lyrics they sang were an extension of the writers’ love for each other, or an imaginative play on words, didn’t cross the singer’s mind.

Tammi’s sister, Ludie Montgomery believed that teaming up with Marvin was a liberating move for her. Tammi, she said, felt creative and free, enabling her to forge an emotional connection with Marvin, Valerie and Nickolas. Her relationship with producers Harvey Fuqua and Johnny Bristol was by now solid anyway, so the future promised fulfilment and success for the young, shy singer and the angry, hurt sex idol. With everything in place, the musical adventure began in January 1967 when Tammi recorded her vocals for the song (Marvin recorded his a month later) that was earmarked to launch them into the extremely lucrative duet market. Aptly titled “Ain’t No Mountain High Enough”, it was the perfect signature tune for their future career together. Berry Gordy noted in his autobiography “To Be Loved” that Harvey Fuqua and Johnny Bristol’s production – “added a new sophisticated and dramatic element to the overall sound. When their first production on Marvin and Tammi was brought into the Friday meeting, there was no debate.” In June 1967 the single shot into the US mainstream top twenty, and top three in the R&B listing. Shamefully, the UK didn’t share their American colleagues’ enthusiasm. Not only did it burn up the US charts, but the song was also nominated for a Grammy award, and, of course, went on to be re-recorded several times, including the magnificent, re-working by Diana Ross which ingenuously mixed ballad, drama and dance.

As noted previously, “Ain’t No Mountain High Enough” wasn’t born as a song for two, but working with Marvin and Tammi, its composers realised it could easily be adapted. As with several of their duets, Tammi laid down her vocals first, although in this instance, it was done because she hadn’t learned the lyrics. However, when Marvin heard the pre-recorded track, he said he could feel her presence which, in turn, made him more alive, and as Johnny Bristol told Ludie Montgomery for her book “My Sister Tommie”, it cemented the singers’ respect and love for each other – “Friendship transcended the presence and they both didn’t have to be there to capture the feeling.” Johnny also felt the song established a spiritual connection for everyone associated with the song. and that when Marvin later joined them in the studio, “He had a fun time and everyone felt the same about the sessions. It was a great environment working with Tammi and Marvin. They did what they did naturally.” All worked comfortably together, tagging themselves the ‘riff brothers’, with Tammi the ‘riff sister’. “They had a magical …. connection, and when they sang they sounded like they (had known) each other their entire lives.”

Marvin told author David Ritz in his book “Divided Soul” that Tammi was a woman who could not be controlled by men. “I loved that about (her). I knew we could be friends, but not lovers. Independent women hold no romantic interest for me.” He conceded though that when they were singing together, they were in love, but this was the result of him creating two characters – “two lovers that might have been taken from a play or a novel…. that’s how the Marvin-and-Tammi characters were born.”

With the runaway success of “Ain’t No Mountain High Enough” came distress. Six months after its release, in October 1967, Tammi collapsed on stage during a performance before four thousand students, at Virginia’s Hampton-Sydney College. Part way through their third song, as she fell, Marvin grabbed her by the arms, and carried her off stage. Having suffered from dizziness and migraine headaches for some time, Tammi had been feeling ill before the 8pm concert, so took time out to recuperate on a couch backstage, while Marvin played poker with his musicians in a nearby room. Rumours ran amok as to the reason for her collapse. Past boyfriends, including David Ruffin, were blamed due to their violent behaviour towards her, and indeed, it is in the public domain that she was hit about the head with a hammer and, on another occasion, pushed down a flight of stairs. However, at the time, the guessing game was in first gear. Motown eventually released a press statement confirming that a slow growing malignant tumour on the right side of Tammi’s brain had been diagnosed. When Marvin realised just how sick his singing partner was, he was inconsolable, a feeling that, by the way, never left him. Thankfully, Tammi slowly recovered from surgery to continue recording, where the first sessions included “You’re All I Need To Get By”.

Meanwhile, the British market also failed to support the duo’s second release “Your Precious Love”, reminiscent of the floating Moonglows’ style, and again lifted from their debut “United” album. It sold better than its predecessor by soaring into the US top five, and narrowly missing the R&B top spot, during the September. A Valerie Simpson favourite, because it was one of the first written with the duettists in mind, and, “there was something very sexy about the way they did it.” Featuring Harvey Fuqua, Marvin and Tammi on backing vocals, Valerie acknowledged to Ludie Montgomery, Tammi’s additional input, including the ad-libs – “that’s why it was so great to have them both in the studio together because they would bounce off each other. “ During the life of “Your Precious Love”, Tammi was pictured on crutches, sneaking into The Cherry Hill Theatre/Restaurant in Camden, New Jersey, to watch Marvin perform. It was an emotional scene to witness.

With no UK action so far, sighs of relief must have been heard in Motown’s London office, when the third outing “If I Could Build My Whole World Around You”, recorded in the Hitsville studio between 16 and 21 March 1967, crept into the British top fifty during January 1968, launching their musical love affair. Once again the single hovered below the US R&B top spot but peaked in the top ten.

Marvin and Tammi’s first single of 1968, “Ain’t Nothing Like The Real Thing”, lifted from their second album “You’re All I Need”, faired better than their previous British release by peaking in the top forty, while across the Atlantic, it managed to top the R&B chart and was their second pop top ten hit. Marvin recalled recording that particular song because they were trying different kinds of riffs and note changes to challenge each other, “and that’s how that song is as melodic and syncopated in the way that it is…. We really had fun recording that.” And the album itself re-established their vinyl love affair – they cried, rejoiced, teased, pledging unremitting emotions. It was their first hour, but recorded under the direst of circumstances due to Tammi’s failing health, as noted in the album’s sleeve notes. It seems that when “You’re All I Need” was issued, Tammi, had undergone at least six operations, and was in hospital, later recuperating in the Bahamas. “I’m feeling fine” she said in an interview at the time. Learning to knit while in hospital made her feel like a grandma, she continued, and upon returning home she started cooking and eating soul food. “I went down to ninety-three pounds in the hospital and now I weigh one hundred and twenty-five.” Her hair, shorn for surgery, was almost natural now. “But, for a while there, my father said I looked just like him.” It was also reported that she was partially sighted and had lost some of her motor functions, hence the crutches or wheelchair. However, it’s thought that Tammi’s sheer determination to return to work pulled her through, and her nagging depressive moods at missing performing with Marvin just as their star was rising, began lifting. However, despite all her best intentions, doctors insisted she stick to a limited work schedule, had daily concentrated rest periods, with live performances a no-go area. It was also disclosed that Motown paid her medical bills.

It was a tragedy. Tammi Terrell was, at last, in a position to shrug off her past struggling years, but was now unable to enjoy them. Promotional work was also difficult. With their chart success, it was obvious the public wanted to see them, and tour promoters, television shows and the media in general, flooded to feature them. Some commitments were jointly honoured, but when Tammi was unable to join him, it was a reluctant Marvin who went it alone without being able to divulge the true nature of his partner’s absence. In the end, Motown singer Barbara Randolph replaced Tammi on stage, a move she wasn’t comfortable with, as she told me. “It was very difficult working with him because these were his troubled years. For example, I was booked to appear at the Apollo with him, and it was one of the many occasions he didn’t show up. I ended up appearing there alone which was really frightening. It was scary (because) they throw hard boiled eggs. And the audience was waiting for Marvin.” Nevertheless, Barbara had nothing but admiration for him, saying she never heard him raise his voice in anger, or get into any type of loud situation. “He was extremely likeable, easy going, and a very mellow person…I admired him before I ever worked with him.” Meanwhile, Tammi concentrated on recording and, apparently, was often seen in the studio singing from a wheelchair or balanced between crutches.

“You’re All I Need To Get By”, with Ashford and Simpson on backing vocals, finally crashed the UK top twenty in October 1968, and once again Marvin and Tammi dominated the US R&B listing, this time, for five consecutive weeks, and racked up another top ten mainstream hit.

Into 1969, and with The Andantes and The Originals as session singers, another track from the “You’re All I Need” album, “You Ain’t Livin’ ‘Till Your Lovin’” hit the UK top thirty in the June, while the States opted for “Keep On Lovin’ Me Honey”; top thirty and twenty in the US pop and R&B charts respectively. Marvin’s solo status was about to drastically change when, slotted in between the run of duets, his “I Heard It Through The Grapevine” shot to the top of the UK chart, with repeat performances across the world. The game plan was changing, Marvin was now an international name and, of course, much in demand. The single’s runaway success had taken Marvin and Motown by surprise. Having been recorded early-1967, Marvin’s was the second version to be released (the first by Gladys Knight and the Pips, although the very first take was an album track by The Miracles on their 1968 “Special Occasion”). Marvin’s moody interpretation, a stroke of genius by producer Norman Whitfield, was hidden away on his “In The Groove” album. However, it didn’t stay concealed for long because it grabbed the attention of some American radio DJs who gave it serious airtime, leaving Berry Gordy no option but to release it as a single. Prior to this international chart topper, Marvin had several solo outings to his credit, including “You’re Unchanging Love”, “You” and “Chained”, while in January 1969, Tammi released her only solo album “Irresistible”, from which a series of singles were extracted.

However, both artists were committed to further duets, and were in the process of completing a third album “Easy”, when one of its tracks, the musical jewel “Good Lovin’ Ain’t Easy To Come By” was lifted during June 1969. Hitting the top thirty on both sides of the Atlantic, plus a top twenty placing in the R&B listing, the public was unaware of the turmoil created behind closed studio doors due to an ailing Tammi. Next out in America was another track “What You Gave Me”, while Motown in Britain chose “The Onion Song” for November 1969 release. Despite its cheesy title, the song actually reflected social consciousness although did appear to be a little slice of nonsense upon first hearing. In hindsight, the song was probably more suited to the British market, but following its unexpected top ten success, America released it during March 1970, to falter in the top fifty, and the R&B top forty.

Over the years, much as been said about their last studio album “Easy” with a somewhat shoddy, unattractive painting by Carl Owens on the front sleeve. Fans had no reason to believe that the music inside wasn’t an authentic Marvin and Tammi release. However, when it was leaked from Motown that Tammi was unable to record, doubts were cast. It’s now on public record that Marvin actually did not want to work on this album because his singing partner was too ill, and that the suggestion of a replacement singer would not only deceive the public, but destroy the special, intimate relationship he shared with Tammi. However, he changed his mind when Berry Gordy confirmed that Tammi and her family would benefit from the album’s sales and any extracted singles. After much speculation, it’s now thought that the majority of the album tracks were authentic, and when two or three titles were needed to complete the project, Valerie Simpson stepped in. A move she has both confirmed and denied, by saying she helped Tammi sing her parts. In a later interview, Marvin revealed Tammi didn’t record much on the album at all, and confirmed Valerie had recorded “The Onion Song” and “What You Gave Me”. Saying she had faithfully captured Tammi’s voice, skilfully imitating her distinctive style and only someone who had worked so intimately with her could possibly have pulled this off. And also as Valerie had probably recorded several of their demos, she was the obvious ‘culprit’. In hindsight, this is irrelevant. It isn’t the first time Motown’s marketing department has stretched the truth. Didn’t The Andantes record with Diana Ross, yet records were released showing “Diana Ross and the Supremes” on the labels? We were none the wiser back then. It’s only in recent times with the growing demand for unreleased material that studio paperwork revealed we had been misled. Having said that, with the “Easy” front sleeve being a painting, fans, like myself, did question Tammi’s involvement in the recordings, although eventually accepted, having seen pictures of the ailing singer in the American press, that a new photo shoot for the project was out of the question. This didn’t affect our enjoyment of the album, despite it being a mixture of sounds. But our hearts went out to Miss Terrell.

While the UK was celebrating Motown’s 10th anniversary in 1970 – and after two and a half years of fighting her illness which entailed several hospital stays, where Marvin was a regular visitor – Tammi Terrell slipped into a coma and died from brain cancer complications on 16 March, a month before her twenty-fifth birthday. Fourteen years later, Marvin Gaye was shot dead by his father on 1 April, a day short of his forty-fifth birthday.

Valerie Simpson: “The chemistry between them was fantastic and while they never had a romance in real life, when they sang together ‘wow’, they were lovers.”

(With sincere thanks to Ludie Montgomery/Vickie Wright’s “The Real Tammi Terrell: My Sister Tommie”. Published by Bank House Books 2005)

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Johnny Britt 2017 SoulMusic.com Interview

Johnny Britt 2017 SoulMusic.com Interview

Multi-faceted music man Johnny Britt first established himself with modern-day soul music lovers as the founder and one-half of the group Impromp2 in the mid-90s, signed to Motown’s MoJazz label and creating a following on both sides of the Atlantic. Subsequently, Johnny’s worked with The Temptations, launched his own solo career and in addition to his solo work, is the newest (and youngest!) member of the legendary group, Little Anthony & The Imperials. In London in November for a sold-out show at The Hideaway and promoting his latest project, “Marvin Meets Miles,” he sat down with David Nathan (who wrote the first Impromp2 bio back in 1995) for a catch up…

Motown Spotlight - November 2017

Motown Spotlight – November 2017

While typing this month’s MS thought I’d re-visit Scherrie Payne’s “Vintage Scherrie” CD which I haven’t played for awhile but which is always close at hand. As you know a couple of tracks were extracted for single release – “Remember Who You Are” and “Crumbs Off The Table” – both exceptional in different ways. The first is warmly soulful, sheer beauty, while the second is rather hard edged and decisive, you don’t mess with this gal. Both stylings are handled with total ease of course. However, it’s “Hope” that I get drawn to every time plus her take on “Ain’t No Mountain High Enough”. Aw, well, will just let it play through in its entirety until I’m done here. And talking of mountains….

I suppose it was to be expected that, following Diana Ross receiving the Lifetime Achievement Award at the recent American Music Awards, an album would be released to coincide with the event. Well, I say ‘album’ but what I really mean is a digital 15 track release under the title “Diamond Diana: The Legacy Collection”, a selection of her biggest titles like “The Boss”, “It’s My House”, “I’m Coming Out”, “Love Hangover” and “Endless Love” with Lionel Richie. However, the carrot that’s being dangled here for stalwart fans is a new dance club, the Anmhe remix of “Ain’t No Mountain High Enough”. It’s alright I suppose, but the whole essence of the Ashford & Simpson composition was the merging of melody and lyrics. A love song of considerable emotion which should, perhaps stay as was intended, and as much as I love the drama attached to Diana’s epic six minutes-plus version on her debut solo album, the 1967 original, produced by Harvey Fuqua and Johnny Bristol, and recorded by Marvin Gaye and Tammi Terrell just can’t be matched. Let’s stay with the song for a moment. Composed by Ashford & Simpson prior to their joining Motown, Dusty Springfield longed to record it, as Valerie recalled, “We played (her) that song but wouldn’t give it to her, we wanted to hold that back because we felt it could be our entry to Motown. Nick called it the ‘golden egg’. Dusty, recorded a similar verse melody in ‘I’m Gonna Leave You’”. Undeterred, the British singer, faithful to the original arrangement, included the song in her stage act usually as part of a soul medley, and actually performed it twice on television as a duet, with Engelbert Humperdink during 1970, and with Michael Ball in 1995.

In the wonderful book “The Real Tammi Terrell: My Sister Tommie” penned by Ludie Montgomery and Vickie Wright (published by Bank House Books 2005), they tell of a nervous, slightly intimidated twenty-two-year-old Tammi recording her vocals for the song on 6 January 1967, leaving Marvin to dub in his vocals later in that month. Valerie felt the song was the perfect vehicle for the two singers although it wasn’t conceived as a duet, as Nick said, “..it turned into (one). Everything kind of fell into place. They saw what was necessary and we were there to change up anything they needed and we all worked together. Marvin would tell me that Tammi was his favourite to sing with. She would cuddle up to him like she belonged to him. It was just beautiful what they had.” Johnny Bristol took this one step further when he was quoted about their mystical blending because Marvin felt her deeply when he sang to her pre-recorded track – which was, apparently, the norm on several of their duets. “Their respect and love for each other …transcended the presence and they both didn’t have to be there to capture the feeling. (The song) really sticks out in my mind because they blended so well on that recording. Nick and Valerie were great writers so they made it a spiritual connection for everyone.“ Incidentally, the Four Tops’ Duke Fakir was one of the backing vocalists on the song, “I remember sitting around during the time Marvin and Tammi were recording it and Marvin says, ‘hey man, come in here and help me sing the song because I can’t make it alone.’”

In one of my interviews with Nickolas Ashford, I wondered why he never recorded the song with Valerie, believing as I did, they were the perfect mouthpieces for their compositions. “I don’t think we even thought about it. When you have an artist like Marvin Gaye, who was just a phenomenal singer, it’s just a dream. We were real writers then and we had this voice that we could do something with, and that was all the glory we needed.”

So, returning to Diana Ross’ 1970 album version for just a second, and then we’ll move on, it seems Berry Gordy wasn’t happy with the song, hating the spoken word passage. He wanted the climactic chorus/bridge to start the song rather than be a feature within it. However, he backed down when Ashford & Simpson persuaded him to release an edited three-minute single to combat radio stations editing their own versions. By cutting the playing time, the fullness of the song was hampered of course, allowing listeners to enjoy a mere musical snapshot of the classical string element from the Detroit Symphony Orchestra, the Andantes’ warm vocals supported by Johnny Bristol, Brenda Evans and Billie Calvin (from The Undisputed Truth), Jo Armstead and Ashford & Simpson themselves. Nonetheless, the edited “Ain’t No Mountain High Enough” earned Diana her first number one single, and a Grammy nomination for Best Female Pop Vocal Performance. The full glorious version was, of course, included on her album: good marketing ploy that. Good Lord, how one thing leads to another when all I intended to do was mention her new digital album! Let’s move on….

One of the songs I regularly play on my Saturday evening soul programme is the Northern Soul Survivors’ charity single, a cover of Frank Wilson’s “Do I Love You (Indeed I Do)”. Featuring Tommy Hunt, Chris Clark, Dean Parrish, Pat Lewis, Sidney Barnes, Johnny Boy and The Signatures, and, last but by no means least, Paul Stuart Davies, who masterminded the whole thing. Released on vinyl and as a download single, it was, as you know, recorded to raise funds for Jon Bates, a Wigan DJ who is wheelchair bound and in need of money to pay for an operation that could see him walk again. “As someone who listens to soul music daily, recording this song has been like being part of soul music history” Paul explained. “I’m very lucky and I loved every minute making the record.” So, let’s spend some time with the young man behind the single. Born in Manchester in 1982, Paul Stuart Davies began professionally performing as a teenager, and following an introduction to a local agent, was soon performing in clubs and pubs across Lancashire. From here, he attended music college which lead to a career as a vocal coach, and as co-creator of the Darwen School Of Music. However, it was his love of Motown that prompted him to front The Soul Train, a 9-piece group, where their popularity grew following performances in Blackpool and Blackburn clubs.

During 2015, and following an endorsement from Marvin Gaye’s second wife Janis, he took to the solo spotlight where he performed alongside Kim Weston, Brenda Holloway, The Velvelettes and The Contours at The World’s Biggest Northern Soul Weekender staged at Butlins in Skegness. Event organiser, Russ Winstanley, was so impressed with the young man’s enthusiastic talent that he invited him to regularly perform at his events, often alongside Motown and Northern Soul legends, many of whom he befriended. “Like the majority of soul fans, I just love Paul’s incredible voice” said Russ. “The quality and purity left me staggered.” Paul’s career escalated when, in May this year, he flew to Detroit to record “Tomorrow’s Love” (based around a 1965 instrumental by Billy Butler) at the renowned United Sound Systems studio. “I haven’t touched the original instrumental” he explained. “What I wanted to achieve was authenticity. This is a Northern Soul record recorded in 2017. I’m not sure when the last original Northern Soul record was recorded in Detroit but it would have been many years ago.” With him in the studio were Kim Weston, Pat Lewes, Tobi Legend, and Rosalind and Betty, the original Vandellas. “When I told them I was going to Detroit to record (it) they all said ‘we’ll be there’. It was just a wonderful experience. I’m lucky enough to be able to call these great artists friends as I have got to know them over the past few years, both from performing with them and also by speaking to them regularly.”

Then during the last two weeks, Paul contacted me saying he’d returned to that Detroit studio to cut the follow-up to “Tomorrow’s Love”, titled “Baby, It’s Yours” with The Fantastic Four providing support vocals. The song is an absolute delight; upbeat, energetic with the catchiest hook I’ve heard in a long while. By the way, it’s flipside “That’s The Truth” was recorded at the same time. Available now on download and, thank goodness, both titles will be available on vinyl by visiting www.paulstuartdavies.co.uk/shop as, of course, was his first single.

Somewhere in between these trips to Detroit, Paul recorded a live performance at the Darwen Library Theatre and issued some of it as an extended play single/CD (not sure what to call it) titled “Northern Soul Reimagined”. Here he was joined by his friends covering tracks like “Long After Tonight Is All Over” and “Because Of You”, together with studio versions of “Wherever I Lay My Hat (That’s My Home)” about which the Vandellas said, “It was 53 years ago when we first recorded (the song) with Marvin Gaye at Hitsville USA. What a thrill to once again provide backing vocals on the same song with Paul…with his smooth, clear voice, offering a wonderful, fresh vocal treatment to this truly sentimental song.”

By way of an early Christmas present for Motown fans, Paul has even more recently recorded “Lovin’ Me Stronger”, a realistic reminder of the company’s early work. Having played it a few times, I can honestly say it certainly is a grower and one that gets the fingers tapping. Yes, like this a lot. And check this out – he’s offering it free of charge on his website – so what are you waiting for? Go get and enjoy.

I’ll let Chris Clark have the last word here because she believes Paul is an amazing singer. “I’d heard about him, looked him up and called to ask if he’d duet with me. We had a great time and he’s a steller talent who’s going to be on the scene a very long time.” My grateful thanks to all who contributed to this article, allowing me to join them in my admiration for a young man who is determined to keep our music alive.

Unfortunately, I have to end on a very sad note with the passing of Miracle Warren “Pete” Moore who died on his 78th birthday last week. “(He was) a fine human being and valued member of the Motown family” said Berry Gordy upon hearing the news. “He was a quiet spirit with a wonderful bass voice behind Smokey Robinson’s soft, distinctive lead vocals, and was co-writer on several of the Miracles’ hits. A gentleman, loving husband, devoted father and loyal friend. We all loved him and will miss him.” More about Pete, and his contribution to Motown’s success, next month, but, meantime, on behalf of us all at soulmusic.com, my sincere condolences go out to his family, friends and, of course, his fans. “Pete was my brother since I was eleven years old” Smokey posted on twitter. “ I’m really going to miss him.”

A PERSONAL TRIBUTE TO LEON WARE

A PERSONAL TRIBUTE TO LEON WARE

It is with profound sadness that I learned this morning of the passing of my dear fellow Aquarian friend and colleague, the great Mr. Leon Ware. One of the most talented music men I ever had the privilege to interview and get to know, buy zanaflex normal dosage, Leon always provided great opportunities for conversations about life, sex and music.  When we found out that our birthdays were a day apart, that further cemented a bond that began back in 1976 when we did our first interview for Britain’s Blues & Soul magazine, reprinted here.

One of my fondest memories of Leon was watching him enchant an audience in Paris in July 2009, just a few months after I came back to live in London. He was simply magnificent, weaving his musical magic through songs from his then-latest album “Moon Ride” as well as doing his versions of songs that had been recorded by others, most memorably Marvin Gaye’s “I Want You,” the title track of the classic 1976 LP that Leon had originally recorded for himself (that he then produced on Marvin), “If I Ever Lose This Heaven” (recorded by so many
greats including Quincy Jones, The Average White Band and others), “I Wanna Be Where You Are” (cut by Michael Jackson and Zulema among others), “Inside My Love,” cut by Minnie Riperton and later revived by Trina Broussard. Leon’s work with contemporary soul man Maxwell resulted in the hypnotic “Sumthin’ Sumethin'” and there’s no doubt that Leon’s timeless recordings (think “Rockin’ You Eternally,” “That’s Why I Came To California”) impacted
later generations: his music was often sampled by rap and hip-hop artists who loved the sensual textures that were at the very heart of his art.

There is so much more I could say about Leon: he was funny, smart, naughty, spiritual, profound and yet always real. You can listen to a great inteview we did in 2013 that gives just a taste of the kind of conversations we had. My thoughts today are of the great times we spent together over many years, of seeing him in action on stage and the easy-flowing conversations we had. My deepest love, blessings and prayers go to his wonderful wife Carol and his family. His spirit lives on through his unforgettable work.
RIP, my Aquarian brother.

David Nathan,
Founder, www.soulmusic.com
February 23, 2017

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Motown’s Musical Masseur
By David Nathan, February 1977
(C) SoulMusic.com, 2017

Some guys get all the best album sleeve sessions! With his “Musical Massage” set, Leon Ware has come to the fore of Motown’s influx on new recording talent, to follow his success as a songwriter and producer with many of Soul’s favourite sons and daughters…

IN THEIR efforts to broaden their own musical horizon in the past eighteen months, Motown have certainly unearthed some dynamic new talent. Via his debut album for the company, Leon Ware has certainly proven to be one of them and although the “Musical Massage” album hasn’t exactly set the charts on fire, the critics have favourably reviewed it and that usually suggests that a new star is in its ascendency.

Despite this being Leon’s first actual recording success, it is neither his first recording experience and nor is it his first taste of actual success because he has been a prominent songwriter and record producer for the past decade.

“I’ve been involved in music for all but three of my thirty six years,” Leon points out. “Admittedly, it wasn’t until I was twenty three that I really became involved.”

The story really begins in 1954 when, in his home town of Detroit, he formed a little vocal group called the Romeos — and the group included Lamont Dozier and Ty Hunter, who is now one of the Originals of “Down To Love Town” and “Baby I’m For Real” fame. It seems that the trio had been at the same school together — along with, apparently, Aretha Franklin and Smokey Robinson. However, after three years, the group split up — with Lamont going more into songwriting/producing and Ty into solo work.

Having finished school — and having met and turned down Berry Gordy — Leon signed with ABC and stayed there for almost four fruitless years. It left a sour taste in his mouth and he returned to regular commerce until 1964 when he finally accepted a post with the growing Motown company.

And it was during that one year stay that he had his first taste of success — as a songwriter for the Isley Brothers’ “Got To Have You Back” hit.

In 1965, he joined Groovesville Music in an independent production capacity and worked with the Holidays, Pat Lewis and Terri Bryant during a two year stretch. From there, he moved on to another disappointing spell — three years with Bell and many of the projects simply were not released.

It was at the end of 1969 does generic klonopin look like that he started working with the Righteous Brothers — just before their split. He also was involved in some of the things on the MGM distributed Venture label on acts such as Johnny Nash and Kim Weston.

The year between summer of ’69 and mid-’70, Leon concentrated on writing and in 1970 he started to write with Bob Hilliard — until the latter’s untimely death in 1972. However, one of the songs that they wrote together was “Come L’Amore”, a song that did some business for Bobby Womack and that, incidentally, Leon is currently recording on an Italian artiste, Laura St. Paul.

Leon moved on to work with Ike & Tina Turner and wrote most of the material on their ‘”Nuff Said” album It was during this era that he recorded his own first album for U.A.

1973 saw him working for A&M and trams involved with Quincy Jones. Leon was involved in the “Body Heat” album, writing such songs as “If I Ever Lose This Heaven” and “Body Heat” itself. Leon considers that “If I Ever Lose This Heaven” is one of his best compositions yet and is especially proud of the way Donny Hathaway handled it on his “Extensions Of A Man” album for Atco.

But it wasn’t until 1975 that Leon came home to Motown and that’s really where it has all happened for him. His main claim to recent fame comes via his involvement in the Marvin Gaye album, “I Want You”.

“Some of the songs had been recorded for my own solo album but when Marvin Gaye heard it, he wanted them and I was more than pleased to turn it over to him completely,” Leon explains. “That’s really why there is such a similarity between the sound of my “Musical Massage” album and the “I Want You” album.

“It’s similar because it is my concept that was turned over to Marvin — and I couldn’t have been more thrilled about it, I can tell you. I think I respect Marvin as a man and a talent more than anybody else in the business. It’s certainly enhanced my career and I’m proud to add that it’s been the biggest album in Marvin’s career, too.

“It’s funny, too, because I was also heavily involved with Quincy Jones’ biggest album. I have just completed an album on Syreeta and I’m keeping my fingers crossed that the trick can work for her, too.”

Although the “Musical Massage” album was begun in 1975, it wasn’t until the spring of 1976 that it was completed.

“I had recorded “I Want You” and “All The Way Around” for my own album and they were among the first ones we did. The co-producer, by the way, was T-Boy Ross, who is Diana’s brother and whose real name is Arthur. Anyway, at the same session, we cut “Instant Love” (a song that Leon had written in earlier years with Bob Hilliard and which had been recorded by the Main Ingredient earlier on), “Share Your Love” and “Body Heat”.”

One of the more interesting aspects of the album is its provocative sleeve — and you can see the full photo on this page and you’ll better understand my choice of words!

“Yes, it is a sensual concept,” Leon admitted gently. “But it says it all, doesn’t it? Love, hate, sex, religion. One reviewer called it the most motivated sleeve in a while.

“The model’s name is Azerzee Houri and she’s been on several other album sleeves in the past. She was a centrefold in “Playboy” last year, you know. And that’s me there, too — they are my hands! Yes, I guess they could persuade me to do a centrefold for “Playgirl” — I’m not the inhibited kind, you see!”

However, one of the lesser broadcast facts about the “Musical Massage” album is that it features guest spots by Marvin Gaye and Bobby Womack.

Currently, Leon is heavily involved in two projects. Firstly, there is the album that he has been recording in Milan, Italy on Laura St. Paul and that’s what will bring him to London during February. And he is just completing his own second album.

“It’s going to be called “The Whole World Is My Home” and it deals with the same basic realities,” he enthuses. “It should be out in April and by that time, “Musical Massage” should have died down.”

But his forthcoming trip to London will be his first and he is thrilled about the way that he has been accepted over here already. Given the breaks, Leon could certainly develop into being another of Motown’s new-wave superstars.

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Listen to David’s “Voice Your Choice” interview with Leon from 2008

Part 1

Part 2

Part 3

Click here for articles and features on LEON WARE in THE SOULMUSIC.COM VAULTS

The Leon Ware Page at SoulMusic,com

Motown Spotlight - December 2016

Motown Spotlight – December 2016

Tell me, why is it that colds, sniffles, coughs and sneezes last so much longer when Christmas Day is looming? Now in my third week, it really is a pathetic, sickly creature writing this but, hey, the show must go on – and Motown is the show! I know what I’ll do, play some Festive songs. “The Ultimate Motown Christmas Collection” is just the job. In between some of the tracks like The Supremes’ “White Christmas”, Stevie Wonder’s “Someday At Christmas”, Four Tops’ “Merry Christmas Baby” and The Miracles’ “God Rest Ye Merry Gentlemen”, there’s spoken word greetings from some of the contributors. They’re all young voices of course, but the sentiment is there. A splash of tinsel on the grooves! Feeling better already…let’s TCB

The other day I decided to play the “Magic Lady” CD first released in the late eighties and was surprised to hear it’s stood the test of time. And the music reminded me of a chat with Linda Stokes during the time of its release, and the first single “Betcha Can’t Lose (With My Love)” which reached the UK top forty, following its American success. Sadly, it was the only one but, hey, for a new act, it was a brilliant result. So, I dug out that interview printed in Blues & Soul, thinking it might be interesting to re-visit my chat and also remind ourselves how the duo got together. Hope you’ll join me on our journey…

Michael Stokes, producer and composer, was the key to Magic Lady: he was also Linda’s husband. It appears his first break came when he was a mere thirteen years old because his mother’s restaurant was opposite Spector Records in New York, and its employees were regular visitors there. “It was part of my life” Michael told a 1988 edition of Voices From The Shadows magazine. ”One day Marvin Schlachter (owner of Prelude Records) came in and I told him I was working on some songs. He fobbed me off for a couple of weeks, but then decided to listen. He thought (they) were very good.” One thing led to another, resulting in Michael being offered a job writing material for him. Moving on to the late sixties, he moved to Detroit to hook up with Eddie Kendricks’ EJK Records, before returning to New York. Long story short, Michael had carved a niche for himself in the business and was subsequently in demand as a producer during the seventies and eighties. Now based in Los Angeles, he successfully worked with Creative Source, Shirley Caesar, Rose Royce and Smokey Robinson, among others.

Let’s backtrack a bit. Hailing from Palmer Woods, Detroit, Michael never knew his biological father because he was murdered while on a visit to the hospital where his son was born. However, as his mother owned a string of restaurants, their future was thankfully financially stable, helping to closet him from the racial tensions that plagued America while he was growing up. He mentioned this in the same interview with the before mentioned magazine. “I went to white schools, and I lived in a Jewish neighbourhood so people weren’t black and white to me. It was only my later education that opened my eyes to what was really going down. I decided my music was the best way I could give people something to alleviate their suffering in whatever small degree.”

Back to the plot. Magic Lady – Linda Stokes, Kimberley Ball and Jackie Steele – was Michael’s brainchild, first signed to Arista Records in 1980. From here they switched to A&M where they enjoyed a US R&B hit “Hot And Sassy”, and a UK specialist soul hit with “Hold Tight”. Then came Michael’s licensing deal with Berry Gordy via his MS International Productions set up, where Magic Lady, now minus Kimberly Ball, was one of several acts included in the deal.

I had in fact spoken to Michael prior to chatting with Linda, and he told me Magic Lady’s eponymous album was a women’s album for women. When it was in the embryonic stages, Linda, Michael and Jackie had actually discussed the project at length, as Linda told me “We have a democratic attitude when we work. Jackie and myself both think alike…it’s almost as if our brains are locked into each other.” When they all came up with identical ideas, they knew they were onto a winner. However, working and living with her husband must cause problems I thought, but not so, because they never took their work home and, she laughed, she let him win their arguments. “But basically, we think alike, so arguments don’t happen that often!”

Linda and Jackie are Detroiters. Linda caught the singing bug in high school, while Jackie’s father was a minister, so was raised in a gospel environment. However, both were avidly aware of Motown and dreamed one day of joining the company. “It’s such a great feeling being with (them). I believe we have a good union and hopefully generic clonazepam vs brand that relationship will work for us both. Everything seems to be going to plan right now and we’re excited about what’s happening. Performing comes easily because it’s fun.”

So, let’s talk music, and the “Magic Lady” album which, she said at the time, was a different type of project for Motown which, she believed, would surprise a lot of people. They worked on it for over three months because the intention was to release a concept work that carried a theme throughout. “It’s a personal album and when we were turning it around it felt we were holding conversations with music. We wanted it to reflect today’s attitude about love and chose not to bring sex or drugs into it.” Sticking to romance was better, they believed, keeping their ideas ‘clean’ and acceptable. Preaching to listeners was also not on their agenda. “We wanted stories that touched the heart. It’s hard for us to write gimmicky lyrics because our songs have to mean something to us first if we’re going to effectively convey them to people.” Anyway, I think the result speaks for itself because apart from the terrific debut single “Betcha Can’t Lose (With My Love)”, I instantly fell in love with “Misty-Eyed” and “Summer Love”. In fact, there wasn’t a lot I didn’t like and that still holds strong today. However, what caught my eye was the album’s packaging – the piercing green eyes that appear on the front cover. You feel drawn to them because they follow you around. Or is it my cold medication kicking in?! Then I also noticed that Berry Gordy was credited as executive producer; not a cosmetic title either Linda explained, because his input was invaluable. “It was a daunting prospect working with him but he is so respected by everyone that I soon lost my nervousness.”

To round off this musical re-visit, I must mention that Linda was also a dress designer, and this would have been her chosen career if music hadn’t beckoned. An example of her work can be seen on the reverse side of the album sleeve. Wherever she went, so did her sketch pad, just in case. Oh lor, as always, I seem to have written more than I had originally planned but nonetheless, hope it’s of interest and, perhaps, re-kindled a little curiosity to play the ladies’ music again. It was just by chance that I spotted the CD in my collection and thought – why not?

Just one more item before leaving. As it’s now in the public domain, and as I made mention of this project last time, there was an exclusive luncheon presentation at Fleming’s Prime Steakhouse & Wine Bar in Beverly Hills, California, just recently to officially announce plans for the Motown Museum Expansion project due to open in 2019. Among the VIP guests was SoulMusic.com’s own David Nathan, who, as a member of the panel of experts, spoke about the profound impact Motown made on the world. “Motown is one of the best imports this country has produced,” he said in his speech. Hosted by company vice president Iris Gordy, she introduced her cousin Robin Terry, chairwoman and chief executive officer of the museum, after taking over the role from her grandmother (the late) Esther Gwen Gordy. Over time, Robin transformed Hitsville USA into a world-class museum attraction for Motown fans the world over. Although Berry Gordy wasn’t in attendance, many of the seventy or so guests spoke about him and the music empire he created, including members of his family, Suzanne DePasse, and other industry figures. Motowners in attendance included Scherrie Payne, Betty Kelley, Janie Bradford, Mable John, Mary Wilson, Claudette Robinson, Eddie Holland, Brenda Holloway and Charlene. So now you know. Fabulous, just fabulous!

Well, the Christmas CD has been re-played a couple of times since I started this and I must say it’s cheered me immensely. Marvin Gaye singing “Christmas In The City” to be followed by The Temptations’ “Silent Night”. No better way to close this last column of 2016 than with the beautiful voices of these guys.

So, all that’s left for me to say is a very Happy Christmas to you all, where I’m hoping you’ll spend time with your family and closest loved ones. For all those people who are working over the Festive period in a variety of jobs, keeping us safe, and tending to the sick and less fortunate, thank you so much for your dedication. To wish you a successful and healthy 2017 goes without http://premier-pharmacy.com/product/topamax/ saying, and I’d like to think there will be peace on earth for us all as well. Although it seems grossly inadequate, thank you for keeping the Motown faith this year; you really are a treasured bunch of people and it’s been a real treat for me to have met so many of you during the past twelve months.

Motown is yesterday; Motown is today, and Motown is tomorrow.